本公司主营:小模数齿轮 螺旋伞齿轮 小模数齿轮加工 弧齿锥齿轮 直齿锥齿轮 缝纫机齿轮 割草机齿轮 园林工具齿轮 的加工... 电话:0519-83408381
首页 新闻中心 在线反馈 联系我们
缝纫机齿轮
割草机齿轮
风、电动工具齿轮
直齿锥齿轮
圆柱齿轮
小型机械齿轮
飞机齿轮
自行车,电动车,汽车齿轮
 
当前位置:首页 > 新闻中心新闻中心
维基百科中的伞齿轮介绍
发布时间:2012/11/8 浏览次数:1705

介绍

两个重要的概念,在齿轮间距表面和俯仰角。间距表面的齿轮是虚的没有牙齿的表面,你将有平均的波峰和波谷的个别牙齿。一个普通的齿轮表面的间距是一个圆柱体的形状。的齿轮的桨距角是面的间距的表面和轴之间的角度。

锥齿轮的最熟悉的种有小于90度的桨距角,因此,锥形。这种类型的锥齿轮被称为外部,因为齿轮齿指出向外。啮合的外部齿锥齿轮的节距表面与齿轮轴是同轴的两个表面的顶点是在轴的交点的点。

有俯仰角大于90度的锥齿轮点向内,被称为内部锥齿轮的牙齿。

具有精确的90度的桨距角的伞齿轮具有齿指向外侧与轴平行的和类似于点上的冠。这就是为什么这种类型的锥齿轮被称为冠形齿轮。

斜切齿轮交配与齿的数目相等,并与成直角的轴的锥齿轮。

斜齿锥齿轮是那些相应的冠形齿轮具有齿,是直链和倾斜。
类型

根据几何形状的不同类型的锥齿轮:

    直齿锥齿轮有锥形的间距表面和牙齿直,向先端渐细。
    螺旋锥齿轮弯曲的角度,让牙齿齿面接触是渐进的和光滑。
    零度伞齿轮是非常相似的一个伞齿轮唯一的例外是在牙齿是弯曲的:每个齿的端部与该轴共面,但每个齿的中间周围的齿轮圆周扫过。零度伞齿轮可以被认为是作为螺旋伞齿轮(其中也有弯曲的牙齿),但具有螺旋角为零(这样的齿的端部与轴对齐)。
    准双曲面锥齿轮螺旋锥相似,但在球场表面是双曲线,而不是圆锥形。行星小齿轮可以上述偏移,或以下,所述齿轮的中心,从而使较大的小齿轮的直径,以及更长的寿命和更平滑的网状,与额外的比率,例如,6:1,8:1,10:1。在“斜角”的表面的旋转轴线平行的限制的情况下,这种配置类似于一个蜗杆传动。

双曲线锥齿轮
螺旋锥齿轮的几何形状
绘图符号列表

* NP - 小齿轮的齿号。

* Ng - 在给定的齿轮齿数。

* DG - 间距直径。给定的齿轮。

* DP - 间距直径。给定的齿轮。

* F - 面宽度(单颗牙齿的长度)。

* γ - 小齿轮俯仰角(弧度)。

* Γ - 齿轮齿距角(弧度)。

* AO - 锥的距离(从节圆轴轴交点的距离)。

* RB - 返回圆锥半径。

* P - 径节。牙径每英寸(N / D)。

* P - 通函间距。每颗牙齿的圆周英寸(Π/ P)。

确定的沿面宽度缩放直齿圆柱齿轮齿形齿锥齿轮的形状。进一步从齿轮和小齿轮轴的交点的,更大的齿的横截面。如果牙齿表面,一路延伸到轴的交叉点,牙齿会接近无穷小的尺寸。的最大的部分的齿的齿的横截面是相同的齿2 * rb时,或两次返回圆锥的半径与节距直径从一个直齿圆柱齿轮的齿的横截面,并与一个假想的齿数(N’)等于2 *Π倍的背锥半径(RB)除以锥齿轮的齿轮齿距(P)。这种方法获得的最大的齿廓的尺寸和形状被称为在“Tredgold”齿形状近似。请参阅附近的背锥半径尺寸,在上面的图中所示的配置文件。平均半径HP = TX n/63000→T = HP X 63000 / N T = RM所述WT→WT = HP X 63000 / NX室
牙齿

这里有两个问题,关于牙齿的形状。一个是横截面轮廓的各个齿。另一种是直线或曲线上面对的齿轮的齿上设置:在其他词语的直线或曲线沿其横截面轮廓投影以形成实际的三维形状的齿。的横截面轮廓和齿线或曲线的主要作用是对齿轮的操作的平滑性。有些结果在平滑的齿轮比别人的行动。
齿线

伞齿轮上的齿可以是直链的,螺旋形或“零”。
直齿线

在直齿锥齿轮的齿是直的并且平行于发电机的锥形。这是最简单形式的锥齿轮。它类似于一个直齿圆柱齿轮,只有圆锥形的,而不是圆柱形的。闸画面中的齿轮直齿锥齿轮。在直链,每个齿啮合时,它会影响相应的齿,并简单地弯曲的齿轮齿,可以解决这个问题。
螺旋齿线
主要文章:螺旋锥齿轮

螺旋锥齿轮有自己的牙齿沿螺旋线。它们是有点类似于在成一定角度的齿的圆柱型螺旋齿轮,但与螺旋齿轮的齿也弯曲。

通过直齿的螺旋齿的优点是,它们啮合逐渐多。在一端的齿轮的齿之间的接触开始,然后蔓延在整个齿。这将导致较低的突然转移力对牙齿当一个新的进来玩。直齿锥齿轮,突然的齿啮合引起的噪声,特别是在高速行驶时,并且这使得它们无法采取在高速行驶时的重负载而不破碎齿的冲击应力。出于这些原因,一般仅限于线性速度低于1000英尺/分;,或为小齿轮,在1000rpm的转速[1]在使用直齿锥齿轮
零度齿线

之间的直线和螺旋锥齿轮,零度齿锥齿轮是一种中间类型。他们的牙齿是弯曲的,但不倾斜。零度锥齿轮设计的意图复制的两岸锥齿轮的特性,但它们的使用了螺旋斜面切割过程产生。
制造弧齿锥齿轮
在齿轮制造过程中使用的材料

的各种材料用于齿轮包括各种铸铁,非有色材料与非 - 材料材料齿轮材料的选择取决于:我)类型的服务㈡)外设速度㈢)度的精度要求四)的制造方法V)所需的尺寸和重量的驱动VI)的许用应力七)耐冲击性VIII)耐磨损性。

1)铸铁流行的,由于其良好的穿着性能,优良的机械加工的铸造方法生产复杂形状的方便。这是适用于大型齿轮形状复杂的需要。

2)钢是足够强大的,具有很高的耐磨损,耐磨损。

3)铸钢齿轮应力高,难以制造的齿轮。

4)普通碳素钢找到高韧性的结合强度高的工业齿轮的应用程序。

5)合金钢高齿强度和低齿面磨损。

6)铝是用在需要低惯量的旋转质量。

7)的非金属材料制成的齿轮给予无噪音的操作,在高圆周速度。
锥齿轮

被称为锥齿轮啮合的两个锥齿轮。锥齿轮,小齿轮和齿轮的间距锥角是从轴的角度,即,相交轴之间的角度来确定。图显示了两个视图的锥齿轮。
锥齿轮
应用

锥齿轮有许多不同的应用,如机车,船舶应用,汽车,印刷机,冷却塔,电厂,钢铁厂,铁路轨道检测机等。

有关示例,请参阅以下文章:

    锥齿轮用于在差分驱动器,它可以传输两个轴旋转速度不同,如那些上转弯汽车的电源。

    伞齿轮被用作一个手钻的主要机制。当手柄是在垂直方向上转动的钻头,变更锥齿轮的卡盘的旋转的水平旋转。锥齿轮在一个手钻有额外的好处增加的卡盘的旋转速度,这使得有可能以钻材料的范围。

    一个伞齿轮刨床中的齿轮在装配过程中,并允许较小的调整,不集中的齿的端部上的负载的情况下允许一些由于操作负载下偏转的位移。

    螺旋锥齿轮旋翼机驱动系统的重要组成部分。这些组件是必需的,在高速行驶时,高负荷,和大量的负载周期操作。在此应用中,螺旋锥齿轮用于重定向从水平的燃气涡轮发动机的垂直转子轴。

五谷​​磨房在多德雷赫特的锥齿轮。注意木齿插入的齿轮中的一个。
优点

    该齿轮使得有可能改变的操作角度。
    不同的齿的数量(有效直径)在每个车轮允许改变机械优势。通过增加或减少的驱动和从动轮之间的齿数之比,人们可以改变两者之间的比率的旋转,这意味着有关的第二轮的旋转驱动和扭矩可以改变到第一,随速度的增加和转矩减少,或速度下降,转矩增大。

缺点

    这种齿轮的一个车轮与其互补轮和没有其他的设计工作。
    必须精确安装。
    的轴的轴承必须能够支持显著势力。


我厂主营:小模数齿轮 螺旋伞齿轮 伞齿轮 直齿锥齿轮 园林工具齿轮 缝纫机齿轮 割草机齿轮
原文:

Introduction

Two important concepts in gearing are pitch surface and pitch angle. The pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless surface that you would have by averaging out the peaks and valleys of the individual teeth. The pitch surface of an ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder. The pitch angle of a gear is the angle between the face of the pitch surface and the axis.

The most familiar kinds of bevel gears have pitch angles of less than 90 degrees and therefore are cone-shaped. This type of bevel gear is called external because the gear teeth point outward. The pitch surfaces of meshed external bevel gears are coaxial with the gear shafts; the apexes of the two surfaces are at the point of intersection of the shaft axes.

Bevel gears that have pitch angles of greater than ninety degrees have teeth that point inward and are called internal bevel gears.

Bevel gears that have pitch angles of exactly 90 degrees have teeth that point outward parallel with the axis and resemble the points on a crown. That’s why this type of bevel gear is called a crown gear.

Miter gears are mating bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and with axes at right angles.

Skew bevel gears are those for which the corresponding crown gear has teeth that are straight and oblique.
Types

Bevel gears are classified in different types according to geometry:

    Straight bevel gears have conical pitch surface and teeth are straight and tapering towards apex.
    Spiral bevel gears have curved teeth at an angle allowing tooth contact to be gradual and smooth.
    Zerol bevel gears are very similar to a bevel gear only exception is the teeth are curved: the ends of each tooth are coplanar with the axis, but the middle of each tooth is swept circumferentially around the gear. Zerol bevel gears can be thought of as spiral bevel gears (which also have curved teeth) but with a spiral angle of zero (so the ends of the teeth align with the axis).
    Hypoid bevel gears are similar to spiral bevel but the pitch surfaces are hyperbolic and not conical. Pinion can be offset above, or below,the gear centre, thus allowing larger pinion diameter, and longer life and smoother mesh, with additional ratios e.g., 6:1, 8:1, 10:1. In a limiting case of making the "bevel" surface parallel with the axis of rotation, this configuration resembles a worm drive.

Hypoid Bevel Gear
Geometry of Bevel Gear
List of Drawing Symbols

* Np - No. of teeth on Pinion.

* Ng - No. of teeth on given Gear.

* Dg - Pitch Dia. of given Gear.

* Dp - Pitch Dia. of given Pinion.

* F - Face Width (Length of single tooth).

* γ - Pinion Pitch Angle (Radians).

* Γ - Gear Pitch Angle (Radians).

* Ao - Cone Distance (Distance from pitch circle to intersection of shaft axes).

* rb - Back-Cone Radius.

* P - Diametrical Pitch. Teeth per inch of Pitch Diameter (N/D).

* p - Circular Pitch. Inches of circumference per tooth (Π/P).

Tooth shape for bevel gears is determined by scaling spur gear tooth shapes along the face width. The further from the intersection of the gear and pinion axes, the bigger the tooth cross sections are. If the tooth face were to extend all the way to the axes intersection, the teeth would approach infinitesimal size there. The tooth cross-section at the largest part of the tooth is identical to the tooth cross-section of a tooth from a spur gear with Pitch Diameter of 2* rb, or twice the Back-Cone Radius, and with an imaginary number of teeth (N’) equal to 2*Π times the Back-Cone Radius (rb) divided by the Circular Pitch of the bevel gear (p). This method of obtaining the dimensions and shape of the largest tooth profile is known at the “Tredgold” tooth-shape approximation. Refer to the profiles shown near the Back-cone radius dimension in the drawing above. Mean radius- Hp=Tx n/63000 → T = Hp x 63000/n T = Rm x Wt → Wt = Hp x 63000/ n x Rm
Teeth

There are two issues regarding tooth shape. One is the cross-sectional profile of the individual tooth. The other is the line or curve on which the tooth is set on the face of the gear: in other words the line or curve along which the cross-sectional profile is projected to form the actual three-dimensional shape of the tooth. The primary effect of both the cross-sectional profile and the tooth line or curve is on the smoothness of operation of the gears. Some result in a smoother gear action than others.
Tooth line

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or "zero".
Straight tooth lines

In straight bevel gears the teeth are straight and parallel to the generators of the cone. This is the simplest form of bevel gear. It resembles a spur gear, only conical rather than cylindrical. The gears in the floodgate picture are straight bevel gears. In straight, when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem.
Spiral tooth lines
Main article: spiral bevel gear

Spiral bevel gears have their teeth formed along spiral lines. They are somewhat analogous to cylindrical type helical gears in that the teeth are angled; however with spiral gears the teeth are also curved.

The advantage of the spiral tooth over the straight tooth is that they engage more gradually. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then spreads across the whole tooth. This results in a less abrupt transfer of force when a new pair of teeth come in to play. With straight bevel gears, the abrupt tooth engagement causes noise, especially at high speeds, and impact stress on the teeth which makes them unable to take heavy loads at high speeds without breaking. For these reasons straight bevel gears are generally limited to use at linear speeds less than 1000 feet/min; or, for small gears, under 1000 r.p.m.[1]
Zerol tooth lines

Zerol bevel gears are an intermediate type between straight and spiral bevel gears. Their teeth are curved, but not angled. Zerol bevel gears are designed with the intent of duplicating the characteristics of a strait bevel gear but they are produced using a spiral bevel cutting process.
Manufacturing Bevel Gear
Materials used in gear manufacturing process

The various materials used for gears include a wide variety of cast irons, non ferrous material &non – material materials the selection of the gear material depends upon: i) Type of service ii) Peripheral speed iii) Degree of accuracy required iv) Method of manufacture v) Required dimensions & weight of the drive vi) Allowable stress vii) Shock resistance viii) Wear resistance.

1) Cast iron is popular due to its good wearing properties, excellent machinability & ease of producing complicated shapes by the casting method. It is suitable where large gears of complicated shapes are needed.

2) Steel is sufficiently strong & highly resistant to wear by abrasion.

3) Cast steel is used where stress on gear is high & it is difficult to fabricate the gears.

4) Plain carbon steels find application for industrial gears where high toughness combined with high strength.

5) Alloy steels are used where high tooth strength & low tooth wear are required.

6) Aluminum is used where low inertia of rotating mass is desired.

7) Gears made of non–metallic materials give noiseless operation at high peripheral speeds.
Bevel Gearing

Two bevel gears in mesh is known as bevel gearing. In bevel gearing, the pitch cone angles of the pinion and gear are to be determined from the shaft angle, i.e., the angle between the intersecting shafts. Figure shows two views of a bevel gearing.
Bevel Gearing
Applications

The bevel gear has many diverse applications such as locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, railway track inspection machines, etc.

For examples, see the following articles on:

    Bevel gears are used in differential drives, which can transmit power to two axles spinning at different speeds, such as those on a cornering automobile.

    Bevel gears are used as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the rotation of the chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of materials.

    The gears in a bevel gear planer permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth.

    Spiral bevel gears are important components on rotorcraft drive systems. These components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and for a large number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor.

Bevel gears on grain mill at Dordrecht. Note wooden teeth inserts on one of the gears.
Advantages

    This gear makes it possible to change the operating angle.
    Differing of the number of teeth (effectively diameter) on each wheel allows mechanical advantage to be changed. By increasing or decreasing the ratio of teeth between the drive and driven wheels one may change the ratio of rotations between the two, meaning that the rotational drive and torque of the second wheel can be changed in relation to the first, with speed increasing and torque decreasing, or speed decreasing and torque increasing.

Disadvantages

    One wheel of such gear is designed to work with its complementary wheel and no other.
    Must be precisely mounted.
    The shafts’ bearings must be capable of supporting significant forces.


技术支持:常州创联网络 网站管理 邮箱登陆首页 | 关于我们 | 产品中心 | 供应信息 | 新闻中心 | 人才招聘 | 在线反馈 | 联系我们
Copyright©2012 常州天勋机械科技有限公司 All rights reserved. 苏ICP备12044178号 版权声明 网站地图 sitemap
友情链接:螺旋伞齿轮 闪蒸干燥机 不锈钢球阀 蠕动泵 干燥设备 喷雾干燥机 机械网站精选 分类网站大全 粉料混合机 硅橡胶密封条 干法造粒机 PCD铣刀